The main economy of the Fogo is based on agriculture and fishing, with coffee and wine among the main products. Many emigrants send some money to their relatives in the island even if senders and receivers no longer know one another. Tourism is steadily becoming popular. Mount Fogo is the island's major attraction but many visitors also come to see relatives. The historic town of São Filipe and Chã das Caldeiras in the volcanic crater receive the bulk of visitors.
Fogo meaning fire in Portuguese is a volcanic island in the Sotavento group of Cape Verde. Fogo stands out the most from the group, rising to almost 3,000 m (10,000 ft) above sea level at Mount Fogo. A very violent eruption took place in 1680. Mount Fogo was visible over hundreds of kilometres and lasted for a couple of years. It was then that the island earned its name.
The volcano has been active for many years and last erupted in 1995, which created a new crater called Pico Pequeno. Fogo’s largest feature is a 9 km wide caldera, which has walls 1 km high. The central cone Pico forms the highest point of the island and its summit is about 100 m higher than the surrounding wall of the caldera. Lava from the volcano has reached the east coast of the island within historical times.
The island's capital town is São Filipe, which is where the airport is found. The first people to settle on Fogo was in the 1480s. Fogo is largely an agricultural island and is the main source of employment. The island also has school, a gymnasium, banks, a post office, some hotels and squares. A village, called Chã das Caldeiras, exists at the base of the volcano, and the residents are often evacuated during eruptions.
Fogo has very fertile land to the southwest with the slope of about 10 to 15 angle. The north and the east are also sloped. The entire island is a seamount and is called the Cadamosto Seamount and it reaches a depth of 5,300 m under sea level and with a distance of 5 km from the shoreline. The slopes in the northeast part are very lush and grassy all-year round, but the rest of the mountain are dry and barren. As Fogo is the most southern, it receives the most precipitation in the Cape Verde islands.
The noble people from Portugal settled on Fogo in 1500. A lot of emigration occurred from 1850 where many people left for North America.